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  Microsoft Windows Active Directory Federation Service multiple security vulnerabilities

From:MICROSOFT <secure_(at)_microsoft.com>
Date:09.12.2009
Subject:Microsoft Security Bulletin MS09-070 - Important Vulnerabilities in Active Directory Federation Services Could Allow Remote Code Execution (971726)

Microsoft Security Bulletin MS09-070 - Important
Vulnerabilities in Active Directory Federation Services Could Allow Remote Code Execution (971726)
Published: December 08, 2009

Version: 1.0
General Information
Executive Summary

This security update resolves two privately reported vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows. The more severe of these vulnerabilities could allow remote code execution if an attacker sent a specially crafted HTTP request to an ADFS-enabled Web server. An attacker would need to be an authenticated user in order to exploit either of these vulnerabilities.

This security update is rated Important for affected releases of Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 x64 Edition. For more information, see the subsection, Affected and Non-Affected Software, in this section.

The security update addresses the vulnerabilities by correcting the validation that ADFS-enabled Web servers apply to request headers submitted by a Web client. For more information about the vulnerabilities, see the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) subsection for the specific vulnerability entry under the next section, Vulnerability Information.

Recommendation.  The majority of customers have automatic updating enabled and will not need to take any action because this security update will be downloaded and installed automatically. Customers who have not enabled automatic updating need to check for updates and install this update manually. For information about specific configuration options in automatic updating, see Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 294871.

For administrators and enterprise installations, or end users who want to install this security update manually, Microsoft recommends that customers apply the update at the earliest opportunity using update management software, or by checking for updates using the Microsoft Update service.

See also the section, Detection and Deployment Tools and Guidance, later in this bulletin.

Known Issues. Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 971726 documents the currently known issues that customers may experience when installing this security update. The article also documents recommended solutions for these issues.
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Affected and Non-Affected Software

The following software have been tested to determine which versions or editions are affected. Other versions or editions are either past their support life cycle or are not affected. To determine the support life cycle for your software version or edition, visit Microsoft Support Lifecycle.

Affected Software
Operating System Maximum Security Impact Aggregate Severity Rating Bulletins Replaced by this Update

Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2[1]


Remote Code Execution


Important


None

Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition Service Pack 2[2]


Remote Code Execution


Important


None

Windows Server 2008 for 32-bit Systems and Windows Server 2008 for 32-bit Systems Service Pack 2*


Remote Code Execution


Important


None

Windows Server 2008 for x64-based Systems and Windows Server 2008 for x64-based Systems Service Pack 2*


Remote Code Execution


Important


None

*Server Core installation not affected. The vulnerabilities addressed by this update do not affect supported editions of Windows Server 2008 as indicated, when installed using the Server Core installation option. For more information on this installation option, see the MSDN article, Server Core. Note that the Server Core installation option does not apply to certain editions of Windows Server 2008; see Compare Server Core Installation Options.

[1]Only affected when updated with Windows Server 2003 R2, which deploys Active Directory Federation Services.

[2]Only affected when updated with Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 Edition, which deploys Active Directory Federation Services.

Non-Affected Software
Operating System

Microsoft Windows 2000 Service Pack 4

Windows XP Service Pack 2 and Windows XP Service Pack 3

Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Service Pack 2

Windows Server 2003 with SP2 for Itanium-based Systems

Windows Vista, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, and Windows Vista Service Pack 2

Windows Vista x64 Edition, Windows Vista x64 Edition Service Pack 1, and Windows Vista x64 Edition Service Pack 2

Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems and Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems Service Pack 2

Windows 7 for 32-bit Systems

Windows 7 for x64-based Systems

Windows Server 2008 R2 for x64-based Systems

Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-based Systems
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Related to This Security Update

Where are the file information details?
Refer to the reference tables in the Security Update Deployment section for the location of the file information details.

What are the known issues that customers may experience when installing this security update?
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 971726 documents the currently known issues that customers may experience when they install this security update. The article also documents recommended solutions for these issues.

Why does this update address several reported security vulnerabilities?
This update contains support for several vulnerabilities because the modifications that are required to address these issues are located in related files. Instead of having to install several updates that are almost the same, customers need to install this update only.

What is Active Directory Federation Services?
Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) is based on the emerging, industry-supported Web Services Architecture, which is defined in WS-* specifications. ADFS helps you use single sign-on (SSO) to authenticate users to multiple, related Web applications throughout the duration of a single online session. ADFS accomplishes this by securely sharing digital identity and entitlement rights across security and enterprise boundaries.

How can I verify whether ADFS is installed on my server?
To verify that ADFS is installed on your server, click Start, click Control Panel, click Add/Remove Programs, double-click Windows Components, and then look for Federation Services as an installed component.

What is Windows Server 2003 R2?
Windows Server 2003 R2 extends the Windows Server 2003 operating system, providing a more efficient way to manage and control access to local and remote resources while easily integrating into your existing Windows Server 2003 environment. Windows Server 2003 R2 provides a scalable, security-enhanced Web platform, seamless interoperability with UNIX-based systems, and enables new scenarios including simplified branch server management, improved identity and access management, and more efficient storage management. Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter Edition and Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition also deliver dynamic new licensing that allows customers to get even more value out of server virtualization.

For more information on Windows Server 2003 R2, see the Windows Server 2003 R2 site.

What are the WS-* web specifications?

The specifications for a Web Services Architecture that is based on industry standards such as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP); XML; Web Service Description Language (WSDL); and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI). WS-* provides a foundation for delivering complete, interoperable business solutions for the extended enterprise, including the ability to manage federated identity and security.

The Web services model is based on the idea that enterprise systems are written in different languages, with different programming models, which run on and are accessed from many different types of devices. Web services are a means of building distributed systems that can connect and interact with one another easily and efficiently across the Internet, regardless of what language they are written in or what platform they run on.

I am using an older release of the software discussed in this security bulletin. What should I do?
The affected software listed in this bulletin have been tested to determine which releases are affected. Other releases are past their support life cycle. For more information about the product lifecycle, visit the Microsoft Support Lifecycle Web site.

It should be a priority for customers who have older releases of the software to migrate to supported releases to prevent potential exposure to vulnerabilities. To determine the support lifecycle for your software release, see Select a Product for Lifecycle Information. For more information about service packs for these software releases, see Lifecycle Supported Service Packs.

Customers who require custom support for older software must contact their Microsoft account team representative, their Technical Account Manager, or the appropriate Microsoft partner representative for custom support options. Customers without an Alliance, Premier, or Authorized Contract can contact their local Microsoft sales office. For contact information, visit the Microsoft Worldwide Information Web site, select the country in the Contact Information list, and then click Go to see a list of telephone numbers. When you call, ask to speak with the local Premier Support sales manager. For more information, see the Microsoft Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ.
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Vulnerability Information

Severity Ratings and Vulnerability Identifiers

The following severity ratings assume the potential maximum impact of the vulnerability. For information regarding the likelihood, within 30 days of this security bulletin's release, of the exploitability of the vulnerability in relation to its severity rating and security impact, please see the Exploitability Index in the December bulletin summary. For more information, see Microsoft Exploitability Index.
Vulnerability Severity Rating and Maximum Security Impact by Affected Software
Affected Software Single Sign On Spoofing in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2508 Remote Code Execution in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2509 Aggregate Severity Rating

Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2[1]


Moderate
Spoofing


Important
Remote Code Execution


Important

Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition Service Pack 2[2]


Moderate
Spoofing


Important
Remote Code Execution


Important

Windows Server 2008 for 32-bit Systems and Windows Server 2008 for 32-bit Systems Service Pack 2*


Moderate
Spoofing


Important
Remote Code Execution


Important

Windows Server 2008 for x64-based Systems and Windows Server 2008 for x64-based Systems Service Pack 2*


Moderate
Spoofing


Important
Remote Code Execution


Important

*Server Core installation not affected. The vulnerabilities addressed by this update do not affect supported editions of Windows Server 2008 when installed using the Server Core installation option. For more information on this installation option, see the MSDN article, Server Core. Note that the Server Core installation option does not apply to certain editions of Windows Server 2008; see Compare Server Core Installation Options.

[1]Only affected when updated with Windows Server 2003 R2, which deploys Active Directory Federation Services.

[2]Only affected when updated with Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 Edition, which deploys Active Directory Federation Services.
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Single Sign On Spoofing in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2508

A spoofing vulnerability in Active Directory Federation Services could allow an attacker to impersonate an authenticated user if the attacker has access to a workstation and Web browser recently used by the targeted user to access a Web site that offers single sign on.

To view this vulnerability as a standard entry in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures list, see CVE-2009-2508.

Mitigating Factors for Single Sign On Spoofing in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2508

Mitigation refers to a setting, common configuration, or general best-practice, existing in a default state, that could reduce the severity of exploitation of a vulnerability. The following mitigating factors may be helpful in your situation:


An attacker cannot choose whom to impersonate. An attacker can only impersonate someone whose authentication token the attacker has been able to obtain, for example, from an Internet kiosk.


An attack is only possible before the session times out on the server. By default, sessions remain open for 600 minutes on the server. If an attacker tried to re-use a victim's authentication token after that time-out period has elapsed, the attack would fail.


An attacker must have access to the authentication token used by the previous user on that terminal. In the case of an HTTPS-enabled server, that authentication token will have been protected in transit, and an attacker must have access to the victim's computer (for example, an Internet kiosk) to exploit the vulnerability. On an Internet kiosk, the user might sign in to an ADFS Single Sign-On (SSO) Web application, then sign off the application. An attacker could then use that computer to access the Web application as the previous user, even though the user has logged out.
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Workarounds for Single Sign On Spoofing in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2508

Microsoft has not identified any workarounds for this vulnerability.
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FAQ for Single Sign On Spoofing in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2508

What is the scope of the vulnerability?
This is a spoofing vulnerability. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could impersonate another user, allowing the attacker to gain access as the targeted user to a Web site that uses the single sign-on functionality of Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS).

What causes the vulnerability?
This vulnerability exists because ADFS lacks sufficient session management validation.

What might an attacker use the vulnerability to do?
On systems with shared access, such as Internet kiosks, an attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could access resources belonging to another, previously authenticated, user. This attack could only be executed within the session timeout configured by the ADFS administrator which is by default configured to 600 minutes.

How could an attacker exploit the vulnerability?
An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by accessing specific data from the browser's cache and reusing it to authenticate against the Web application implementing ADFS single sign-on (SSO). After the session times out on the server, ADFS will disable the authenticated session on the server side and will no longer allow the attacker to re-use these credentials.

What systems are primarily at risk from the vulnerability?
Web servers using ADFS for single sign-on purposes are affected by this vulnerability. This vulnerability does not directly affect client systems.

What does the update do?
The update addresses the vulnerability by properly discarding authentication credentials when the user logs off the network.

When this security bulletin was issued, had this vulnerability been publicly disclosed?
No. Microsoft received information about this vulnerability through responsible disclosure.

When this security bulletin was issued, had Microsoft received any reports that this vulnerability was being exploited?
No. Microsoft had not received any information to indicate that this vulnerability had been publicly used to attack customers when this security bulletin was originally issued.
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Remote Code Execution in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2509

A remote code execution vulnerability exists in implementations of Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS). The vulnerability is due to incorrect validation of request headers when an authenticated user connects to an ADFS enabled Web server. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could take complete control of an affected system.

To view this vulnerability as a standard entry in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures list, see CVE-2009-2509.

Mitigating Factors for Remote Code Execution in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2509

Mitigation refers to a setting, common configuration, or general best-practice, existing in a default state, that could reduce the severity of exploitation of a vulnerability. The following mitigating factors may be helpful in your situation:


The attacker must have valid logon credentials to the vulnerable server. An attack can only be carried out after authenticating successfully to the server that supports ADFS.
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Workarounds for Remote Code Execution in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2509

Microsoft has not identified any workarounds for this vulnerability.
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FAQ for Remote Code Execution in ADFS Vulnerability - CVE-2009-2509

What is the scope of the vulnerability?
This is a remote code execution vulnerability. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could then perform actions on the IIS server with the same rights as the Worker Process Identity (WPI), which by default is configured with Network Service account privileges.

What causes the vulnerability?
This vulnerability exists because ADFS does not correctly validate request headers submitted by authenticated clients.

What might an attacker use the vulnerability to do?
An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could then perform actions on the IIS server with the same rights as the Worker Process Identity (WPI). The WPI is configured with Network Service account privileges by default. IIS servers with ASP pages whose application pools are configured with a WPI that uses an account with administrative privileges could be more seriously impacted than IIS servers whose application pool is configured with the default WPI settings.

How could an attacker exploit the vulnerability?
An attacker could try to exploit the vulnerability by sending a specially crafted HTTP request to an ADFS-enabled Web server. An attacker would need to be an authenticated user in order to exploit this vulnerability.

What systems are primarily at risk from the vulnerability?
ADFS-enabled Web servers are at risk. Client systems are not affected by this vulnerability.

What does the update do?
This update corrects the validation that ADFS-enabled Web servers apply to request headers submitted by a Web client.

When this security bulletin was issued, had this vulnerability been publicly disclosed?
No. Microsoft received information about this vulnerability through responsible disclosure.

When this security bulletin was issued, had Microsoft received any reports that this vulnerability was being exploited?
No. Microsoft had not received any information to indicate that this vulnerability had been publicly used to attack customers when this security bulletin was originally issued.

Other Information
Microsoft Active Protections Program (MAPP)

To improve security protections for customers, Microsoft provides vulnerability information to major security software providers in advance of each monthly security update release. Security software providers can then use this vulnerability information to provide updated protections to customers via their security software or devices, such as antivirus, network-based intrusion detection systems, or host-based intrusion prevention systems. To determine whether active protections are available from security software providers, please visit the active protections Web sites provided by program partners, listed in Microsoft Active Protections Program (MAPP) Partners.

Support


Customers in the U.S. and Canada can receive technical support from Security Support or 1-866-PCSAFETY. There is no charge for support calls that are associated with security updates. For more information about available support options, see Microsoft Help and Support.


International customers can receive support from their local Microsoft subsidiaries. There is no charge for support that is associated with security updates. For more information about how to contact Microsoft for support issues, visit the International Support Web site.

Disclaimer

The information provided in the Microsoft Knowledge Base is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Microsoft disclaims all warranties, either express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. In no event shall Microsoft Corporation or its suppliers be liable for any damages whatsoever including direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, loss of business profits or special damages, even if Microsoft Corporation or its suppliers have been advised of the possibility of such damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages so the foregoing limitation may not apply.

Revisions


V1.0 (December 8, 2009): Bulletin published.

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